Tag Archives: interface

Current labour of love…

… is the finalisation of a chapter for the edited volume New Representation in Scientific Practice, edited by Catelijne Coopmans, Mike Lynch, Janet Vertesi & Steve Woolgar. MIT Press.

Our contribution is entitled:
Networked neuroscience: brain scans and visual knowing at the intersection of atlases and databases

Anne Beaulieu and Sarah de Rijcke

Abstract
Brain scans have been in heavy circulation these past 20 years as some of the most fascinating and ubiquitous digital images in scientific and cultural spheres. In this chapter, we analyze how the scans are both digital and networked images that depend on suites of technologies (Shove 2007) for their constitution and meaning. In particular, we will show how the production and reading of brain scans function in different suites, some of which reinforce a modernist, mechanical, pipeline approach to brain imaging, where digital images are acted upon as measurements, and others that highlight the interactive and interventionist potential of digital imaging, where brain scans are constituted as fluid animations. We argue that brain scans come to be associated with specific kinds of authority through complex ecologies of visualization routines in digital visual culture. In particular, brain scans are focal points in arrangements of scanning and database technologies, constituted in electronic networks where individual experiences are mediated by interfaces. New modes of seeing and novel technologies co-evolve with adjustments in particular epistemic approaches, at times resembling earlier practices and at times moving towards new kinds of objectivity.

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Visual Culture and Texts

At the colloquium on ‘texts and digital creativity’ last week, one session was dedicated to ‘texts as artifacts’. Somewhat unexpectedly, this session raised a lot of very pertinent issues for our project. Bruce Zuckerman presented on the project and site ‘Inscriptifact‘ (some assembly required). A large part of the navigation on this site, which provides photos of inscriptions on artifacts (hence the name…), is done using the image as an interface, as an index of further material that can be consulted. Furthermore, the latest visualisation strategy presented these objects in a very particular way. Using a ‘light dome’, objects are photographed from a number of angles and under a number of conditions. The website interface enables one to visualise the object, as though angling it in the light/shifting the angle of lighting. The point, for the Inscriptifact people and users, is that different angles will reveal different aspects of the object and script. The specific interface is a black circle, over which a mouse can be moved, so as to indicate the preferred angle of lighting. The transition is smoothed out, further adding to the perception of seamlessness. (I couldn’t find this particular interface on the site, but that could be because it’s not yet implemented–will have to contact Bruce about that.)

But it’s the logic of the interface that I find so fascinating. It’s a bit hard to put into words, but the interface appeals to a notion of manipulation, of spatial handling of the object. The particularity of this approach was further highlighted by the contrast with the other presentation in this session. Roger Boyle from the University of Leeds spoke about the work he has been leading on the digital processing of images of texts, so as to reconstruct watermarks and other properties of the paper (which are invaluable sources regarding provenance, and printing and circulation history of documents). For this work, he deploys a substraction methodology, to remove the data belonging to the recto and to verso, so as to be left with the data about the ‘in-between’, the paper layer. Not surprisingly, Boyle’s expertise has also been applied and developped through work on medical imaging, where the subtraction methodology has indeed been immensely fruitful–not only to visualise structure, but also to image the function of the brain.

What makes these constrasting approaches interesting? In one case, the images were of interest because of their plenitude, of the wealth of possible views. In the other, it is the removal of excess that makes the image precious and informative. Both kinds of visualisation require a comparison, but its site is different and the viewer has a different role.

These two talks and the subsequent conversations with the speakers sparked further reflections on the role of the observer, on the way the computer was being used in each of these cases, and on the different versions of the digital being instantiated. These are just the kinds of fascinating projects at the edge of digital visual culture that we hope to better be able to characterise and understand as our research develops.

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